Round-headed apple tree borers are capable of attacking young and healthy trees. So, the number of laid eggs increased proportionally with female dimensions. 1987). Eggs were ovoid in shape, pearly white and measured on average 3.11 ± 0.13 mm in length and 2.25±0.18 mm in width. The amount of cannibalism was mainly determined by grouping 6 to 8 larvae of the same instar in boxes provided at the beginning of the experiments with normal quantity of food but insufficient quantities thereafter. Thus O. agamemnon is a univoltine species. This large difference was principally due to the heterogeneity of the chosen sample. i) Oviposition and egg: After sunset, the male and female moths come together and after sexual union the eggs are fertilized internally, i.e., internal fertilization takes place. The burrow in the cam- bium soon heals and is scarcely discernible a year after it is made. Adults do not feed. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. A mature larva is about 1.25 inches long, fleshy, thin-skinned, white or yellowish, cylindrically shaped, with a brown head and a rounded thickening of the body just behind the head. Eggs typically are inserted into the bark of the trunk near the ground, although eggs may occasionally be laid in tree crotches. The larvae are often referred to as round-headed borers because of their cylindrical body shape. The adults are striking brown-and-white-striped beetles, almost an inch long. Adults will crawl over the surface of the tree and feed to some extent on the foliage and on the new twig growth. When sap stains are found, a shallow slice in the surface of the bark with a sharp knife will expose or kill the young borer without causing any injury to the tree. Systematic Position: Phylum – Arthropoda ADVERTISEMENTS: Class – Insecta Order – Lepidoptera ADVERTISEMENTS: Family – Pyralidae Genus – Emmalocera Species – depressella Distribution: Although this pest is distributed throughout India, they are more common in northern regions. Adults showed different feeding behaviours depending on the food offered. The abdomen and elytra remained soft until adult eclosion. This result was similar to those of Lepesme 1947 (cited in Khoualdia O. et al.1997), which indicated an average period of 13 days for O. agamemnon . The best relative humidity was between 20 and 30%. This operation was done three times per stadium (n = 12 larvae for each stage) as follows: just after moulting and 15 days and 30 days later to verify the change in the dimensions of the cephalic capsule. Egg hatching varied between 0 and 100%. In the spring, the larva pupates and passes into the adult stage. The most destructive stage is the third instar that can reach 17 g in weight at full development. They are active from early May to September, with females depositing eggs under bark and in small cavities in the tree trunk near the ground. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. Young larvae sometimes bore into wood below the ground surface, but older larvae feed above ground. The prepupal period lasted 17.14 ± 3.29 days, but in Table 2 the prepupal stage was included with the third larval stage. In nearly all cases the newly hatched larvae will cause some sap flow at the point where they begin to feed. The borer has a two-year life cycle. Slightly enlarged. Their larvae are commonly referred to as roundheaded borers which feed deep within the wood and their life cycle may last several years. The length and width of ten eggs was measured. Results of these measurements showed the existence of three larval instars (Table 1). As they grow, they eventually attack the heartwood as well. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at … Apple root borer Infests fruit and forest trees. During the following spring, summer and fall, the larva bores deeper — 1 to 2 inches — into the wood. A single larva can kill a young tree. The genus Oryctes includes 39 species (Bedford 1976), but only some of them impact the development of palm trees and more particularly coconut trees (Ohler 1999). In southeastern Pennsylvania, adults usually begin to emerge about the 1 st of July and continue to emerge into mid or late August. A hibernating larva may survive for 200 or more days. Due to its wide distribution, the species Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is the most important and studied pest of coconut (Gressit 1953; Ohler 1999). Most borers are attracted to trees that are weakened through drought, injury or disease, but some borer species can successfully attack healthy, vigorous trees. It is best to worm the trees each year. Search for other works by this author on: Rapport non publié du Commissariat Régionale de Développement Agricole de Tozeur, Observations on the biology and ecology of, Biology, ecology and control of palm rhinoceros beetles, The coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) with particular reference to the Palau islands, Plant Protection and Production, paper 156, Modern Coconut Management. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. It is a pest of various palm trees (Surany 1960 cited in Balashowsky 1962). Oases are seriously damaged and determining the number of larvae on palm trees is very important. Pupal mortality shown in Table 3 was mainly caused by: failure of the larval cuticle to detach at the cephalic capsule, burying of the pupa in the substratum after pupal moulting, and irritation or injury resulting in the death of the pupa. Cannibalism was more accentuated when third larval instar, prepupa and pupa were present together inside the same box. Most larvae are shallow-boring species and tunnel just beneath the bark of the trunk, branches, or twigs. Female moths can be seen during the day resting on the leaves near the edges. Rasmi Soltani, Ikbel Chaieb, Med Habib Ben Hamouda, The life cycle of the root borer, Oryctes agamemnon, under laboratory conditions, Journal of Insect Science, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2008, 61, https://doi.org/10.1673/031.008.6101. The mortality of larvae due to cannibalism in the first, second and third stages was 8.33%, 36.36% and 60.71%, respectively (Table 4). The number of twenty-eight males and females were paired under laboratory conditions (23°c, RH = 55 ± 5%). Adult beetles are nocturnal and feed on leaves and occasionally fruit, but are not considered economically important. Mating and oviposition occur in dark places inside the substrate. The Round-headed Apple-tree Borer {Saperda Candida Fab.) These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine. • Abults beetles 35-50mm long and grey in colour having long antennae. Biological material was collected by hand picking, from November 2002 to March 2003, in the oases of Mrah Lahouar and Ibn Chabatt sites in Tozeur, in southwestern Tunisia where palm trees were seriously infested by this pest. It was also mentioned by Bedford (1980). Lepesme (1947) studied the biology of O. agamemnon and found that the duration of the first, second and third instars were respectively, 30–35, 30–45 and 55–95 days, which are shorter for the second and third instar. The larva enters the plant at the base of the cane and grows in size feeding on the plant’s internal tissues. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. When larvae were caged together with adults legs constituted the mainly target of larvae, but their attacks were generally without effect because of the rigidity of the adult body and their mobility which allowed them to easily escape. They fed in potatoes tubercles by extracting the juice of chewed tissues, adult dig a hole in the potato and stay inside. Larvae bred on cauliflower died before they molted, but larvae fed on potato tubercles and natural food completed normal development. Longevity was also measured for 10 non-mated females. The number of eggs laid by female varied between 17 and 31 eggs/female, the mean for seven studied females was 22.57 ± 4.65 eggs. During the larval period the width of cephalic capsules were measured, using a numeric slide gauge, to determine the number of larval stadia. The hatched larva begins feeding within the bark and by September, the larvae are found between the bark and sapwood. Pupae developed from experimental material or collected from oases were sexed using the curved horn, which was present on male heads and rudimentary or absent in females. These differences can be explained by the breeding conditions and the quality of food used. All the woody parts of the tree from the buds and twigs to the trunk and roots are susceptible to borer attack. There are several pests or groups of pests that feed on apple leaves. These are the green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) and the spirea aphid (Aphis spiraecola). O. agamemnon has one generation per year, lasting about 336 ± 10 days when breeding in natural substrate at 23±2°C and 55±6% RH. Adult feeding activity was examined in boxes containing either natural substrate or other foods (cauliflower or potatoes tubercles). They eat tree leaves and new shoots for about a week, then they mate. 302. âAdult of the Raspberry Root- borer. The most important insect borer attacking home apple trees in Maine is the roundheaded apple tree borer. During summer, larvae feed at depths around 6-18 inches and in winter they descend to about 36 inches down the soil surface. There are two major kinds that can build up to fairly high numbers during the summer. Palm borer moths are active during the summer. Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris; Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a clearwing moth with edaphic, oligophagous larvae that feed on roots of grape, Vitis, and a potentially destructive vineyard pest in portions of the eastern United States (Harris 1854, Brooks 1907, Clark and Enns 1964, Pollet 1975, All and Dutcher 1978). A single larva can kill a young tree. The male mounts the female by approaching from behind. Eggs are 1.3 mm in size. The size of sample can also influence the results. The duration of developmental periods of various stages of O. agamemnon reared on natural material at 23±2°C (RH=55±6%) are shown in Table 2. If the root is long enough, the burrow may Incubation lasted 14.3 ± 1.42 days. During August and September, growers should check each tree for the presence of the young larvae, especially in those parts of the orchard where previous infestations have occurred. The adults can occasionally cause serious defoliation of trees. However, the embryogenic period for Oryctes rhinoceros lasted between 8–12 days (Bedford 1976; Sivapragasam 2003). After moulting the pupa was initially creamy white. The emerged laboratory adults were placed in pairs into plastic boxes with natural substrate. Adults appear in early August and are present through most of September. There are many natural enemies that feed on these pests.Aphids: Aphids are a fairly common problem on apples. Rearing boxes were kept under ambient temperature conditions of 23 ± 2°C. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2°C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. Waterhouse et al. These differences in percentage can be explained by the duration and the voracity of each larval instar. The female lays up to 100 eggs in groups under litter or in the ground. After eclosion, larvae consumed the exuviate of the previous larval instar which constituted the first food consumed by the newly emerged larva. Duration of this act was variable and ended with mating. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. These laboratory tests constitute a first step to understand the biology and the behavior of the species, but a study of O. agamemnon under natural conditions is necessary. The growth rate of cephalic capsules was 1.9 from first to second instars, and 1.73 from the second to third instars. The number of days elapsed between the pupal stage and adult emergence was considered as the pupal period. The prepupal period ended with pupation. Adult moths live about 1 to 2 weeks and do not consume any food. Because adult emergence and egg-laying can occur over a relatively long period, two to three insecticide applications may be needed during June and July. The adult escapes from the chamber by cutting away the bark cap. It is not known if cannibalism occurs under natural conditions. Adult beetles usually appear in May and June, with egg-laying continuing until late July. (1987) reported similar results for O. rhinoceros (17–28 days). Once copulated the female, supporting the male on her back, dug into the substrate where mating was completed and oviposition occurred. The females lay eggs from early June through August in bark crevices in the lower two feet of the trunk. The majority of the three to five year life cycle is spent underground as larvae, feeding on the roots of trees and shrubs. The location of damage on the bark and the species of tree attacked aid in the identification of the insect involved. The adults frequently will get enough poison to kill them when feeding on the new bark or leaves. This information is based on “The activity of insects, diseases and beneficial in Ontario“. Both elytra and fully developed hind wings were present, elytra directed nearly laterally to the body were slightly bent under the body. The Palo Verde Borer and the Giant Oak Root Borer. The prepupal period characterized the end of the third larval instar; it was mainly marked by the static form of larvae and the arrest of feeding activity. Original. But, the past few years, it has become an important pest in some Virginia vineyards. The length of the body of 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars reached a maximum of 29 ± 0.005, 55 ± 0.014 and 90 ± 0.035 mm, respectively. The relative humidity within the boxes was 55 ± 6 %. Remo'al and destruction of infested canes and roots each spring is the onlj' remedv.. Adult beetles usually appear in May and June, with egg-laying continuing until late July. The mating time was measured and behaviour was observed for seven couples. We thank Dr. Henry Hagedorn for improving the English of the manuscript. Since these two parameters increased proportionally with larval instar suggests that cannibalism was due to food lack and overpopulation inside boxes. Using natural substrate, after its emergence and the end of the process of hardening and maturation adults remained sedentary, buried in the substrate. In fact, under natural conditions, the life cycle of Scarabaeidae varies with climate and is longest in more temperate regions and shorter in tropical areas with no climatic seasons (Ritcher 1957). Apple Root Borers feed on the wood of trees, affect fruit trees including apples, cherries, peaches, pears and plums. Adults were never seen to feed during their life time. It has been a major pest in nearby grape-growing states (NC, WV, TN). The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Other observations were made by grouping different combinations of stadia, inside the same box, as: i) different larval instars; ii) third larval instar, prepupa and pupa; iii) third larval instar and adults, and iv) third larval instar and eggs. Young non-bearing blocks of apple trees are particularly susceptible. Taken in order of importance and pest frequency, they are the roundheaded appletree borer, Saperda candida, flatheaded appletree borer, Chrysobothris femorata, broad necked root borer, Prionus laticollis, and tilehorned prionus, Prionus imbricornis. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. In case of a one-year cycle, the total life cycle takes about 13 months and a two-year cycle can take up to 23 months. The root borer (Balashowsky, 1962) Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was introduced accidentally into the oases of Mrah Lahouar in the Djerid zone southwest of Tunisia at the end of 1970s and beginning 1980s from the United Arab Emirates (Anonymous, 2000). Initially, legs were slightly glued to the body, but they were progressively liberated and sclerified. Length, width and weight measurements are shown in Table 5. A total of ten boxes were used during this experiment divided as follow: three boxes with first and second instars and four boxes with the third instar. The … The mortality of larvae fed natural food is shown in Table 3. Cannibalism Mortality percentage in different stages. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. This is the most serious borer among apple trees. The average longevity of adults under laboratory conditions was 65.27 ± 9.48 days without considering the sex, and varied from 51 to 82 days. Consequently, the proper timing of insecticide sprays is crucial for effective chemical control of borers. We thank techniciens of the entomological laboratory of Phoenicicole Research Centre of Degache Mr. Med Sghaier Hmidi and Taher Kwaies for their assistance and help in laboratory and field work. Longhorn borers, named for their long antennae, are a common group of wood boring beetles. Apple Stem Borer • Apple Stem Borer (Apriona Cinerea Cheverlot) destructive stem borer of apple and other fruits. In the field, larvae are responsible for damaging different parts of the date palm and adults do not cause damage. Mortality during embryogenesis was 9.09 % due essentially to low humidity that results in the arrest of embryonic development, or excess humidity that results in fungal infestation. Comparing these results with O. rhinoceros (cited by Waterhouse et al.1987) larval durations of 10–12, 12–21 and 60–165 days, respectively for first, second and third instars were reported. Adult poplar borer beetles emerge from the tree trunks in summer (June to August). The length of larval stadia began after the moulting of the collected biological material which was mainly composed of first and second instars. 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